5 ECTS: lectures: 40 h; seminars: 20 h; 90 h of self-learning

Topic 1: Introduction to the course “Hybrid conflicts as a threat to security systems”. 

Subject and purpose of the course “Hybrid conflicts as a threat to security systems”. The concept of “hybrid”: relevance, novelty. Use of the concept of “hybrid” in the information space. Areas of security systems research. The modern world and its threats.

Topic 2: Current research on hybrid conflicts: the experience of the EU for Ukraine. 

State of research on hybrid conflicts. Study of the concept of hybrid warfare and hybrid threats in Europe. Concept of hybrid war and perception of hybrid threats: OSCE discourse. Analysis of dimensions, characteristics of hybrid threats, their application, possible vulnerabilities, and cyber dimension. Ukraine’s applied experience of countering hybrid threats: analysis by the European environment. Review and comparison of modern hybrid threats in Ukraine, Georgia, Moldova, and other regions.

Topic 3: EU regulatory and legal support in the field of security. 

The concept of “European security”. European Security and Defence Identity (ESDI). Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP). Conditions for the existence and functioning of states (sovereignty, political and economic independence, equality of relations with other countries). Variability of European security and defense policy regulators.

Topic 4: The role of EU institutions in ensuring the 16th and 17th Sustainable Development Goals. 

16 SDG: peace and justice. Building peace on the principles of tolerance and solidarity. Practicing long-term solutions to overcome conflicts and improve security. 17 SDG: partnership for sustainable development. Strengthening cooperation and support of national plans to achieve the SDGs. The role of EU institutions in ensuring the 16th and 17th SDGs.

Topic 5: Institutional principles of counteracting hybrid conflicts in the EU and Ukraine. 

Means of ensuring effective mutual consultations, cooperation, and transparency in the EU (European Commission, European External Relations Service). A unified framework for countering hybrid threats. Monitoring and analysis of hybrid threats. Exchange of information on disinformation activity. Briefings on the hybrid landscape.

Topic 6: Activities of The European Centre of Excellence for Countering Hybrid Threats. 

Background and purpose of establishing Hybrid CoE. The concept of three “Communities of Interest” (COI). Anti-cyber-attacks. Fighting propaganda. Measures to overcome disinformation. Hybrid CoE: training courses, exercises, hosts workshops for policymakers and practitioners. Analysis of hybrid threats and methods of combating them. Organization of joint training for participating countries. Conducting consultations at the strategic level between EU and NATO participants. Involvement of governmental and non-governmental experts in the dialogue.

Topic 7: Universal and regional systems of collective security in counteracting hybrid conflicts. 

Collective security as a system of collective actions of states and societies. Joint Framework on countering hybrid threats a European Union response (2016). EU strategic communication to counteract propaganda against it by third parties (2016). Principles of collective security. Variability of implementing complexes of collective security measures in countering hybrid threats. The NATO Strategic Communications Center of Excellence.

Topic 8: Hybrid threats as an object of analysis in the social sciences. 

The concept of hybrid threats in sociology, political science, military affairs, conflict studies, and security studies. Characteristics of a hybrid threat. Manifestations of hybrid threats. Evolution of hybrid threats. Peculiarities of the perception of hybrid threats by politicians, civil servants, diplomats, and the public.

Topic 9: Hybrid political conflict as an object of study and research. 

The concept of “hybrid political conflict”. Military-political conflict of a hybrid type. Hybrid political conflict: global dimensions. Political conflict of hybrid type: regional dimension. Correlation of the concept with a hybrid threat, hybrid conflict, hybrid war.

Topic 10: Hybrid political conflict: origin, forms, causes, driving forces, specifics. 

Origin of hybrid political conflict. Forms of hybrid political conflict. Causes of hybrid political conflict. Driving forces of hybrid political conflict. Specifics of hybrid political conflict.

Topic 11: Cycles of hybrid political conflict. 

Cyclical development of the conflict of the hybrid type. Phases of a hybrid political conflict. Interchanging periods of active actions with periods of lull in hybrid conflicts. Changing the number of priority issues according to changes in the cycle. Correlation of the dynamics of the conflict with the cycle of political conflict of the hybrid type.

Topic 12: Hybrid war: types of weapons and ways to start a war. 

Wars of a new type. Hybrid war: peculiarity and problem of definition. The history of hybrid wars in human history: experience. The concept of “hybrid aggressor”. Types of weapons. Ways to start a hybrid war. The hidden meanings of hybrid warfare.

Topic 13: Hybrid peace as a category in conflict studies. 

Victory in the context of hybrid warfare. Metaphors of peace. Peace as an ideology. The crisis of the safe world. Space of instability. Strategies for winning in hybrid warfare. Historical examples of hybrid peace.

Topic 14: Security asymmetry in the era of globalization. 

Globalization of the security system. Security opportunities in a globalized world. Asymmetry and strength advantage. Security asymmetry and asymmetric conflict. Paradox of asymmetry: resolution, course and end of the conflict.

Topic 15: Problems of deterrence of hybrid conflicts: EU practices. 

The problem of hybrid influence. The problem of non-state actors. The problem of determining the limits of vulnerability and stability. The problem of strategic understanding of hybrid warfare. The problem of realizing national goals and hindering the realization of the enemy’s political goals.

Topic 16: Prevention as a way to counter hybrid conflicts. 

The practice of improving early warning and situational awareness, strategic communications and signals, crisis response, resilience, cyber defense, and energy security. Development of capabilities for state-wide and national approaches to countering hybrid threats. The doctrine of countering hybrid threats is based on the Finnish model of integrated security. Conducting situational exercises and discussions based on scenarios.

Topic 17: Non-traditional threats and modern security systems. 

Non-traditional threats: politics and diplomacy. Non-traditional threats: security and defense. Non-traditional threats: economy and business. Non-traditional threats: energy and environment. Non-traditional threats: technology and innovation.

Topic 18: OSCE cooperation with Ukraine in shaping the security system. 

Special monitoring mission of the OSCE in Ukraine. OSCE project “Promotion of dialogue on reforms in Ukraine”. Memorandum of Understanding between the Government of Ukraine and the OSCE. The basis of cooperation between Ukraine and the OSCE (joint planning, implementation and monitoring of projects).

Topic 19: Reforming the security sector in the context of the spread of hybrid threats: the EU experience for Ukraine. 

Approaches to hybrid threats in the EU. The experience of the EU and EaP countries in developing state capabilities to counter hybrid threats. Poland strengthens counteraction to hybrid threats. Baltic front of counteraction to hybrid aggression. Hybrid War: Georgian State Lessons for Ukraine. Moldova in countering hybrid aggression.

Topic 20: The role of the EU in resolving the current situation in Ukraine: humanitarian aid, investment support, and EU sanctions policy.

The issue of Ukraine is on the agenda of the EU and the OSCE. Monitoring of actual hybrid threats to Ukraine’s security. Calculating the weakness of the Ukrainian security system before the aggression. Humanitarian aid. Investment support. EU sanctions policy. Information sphere – a key dimension of a hybrid war.

5 ECTS: lectures: 40 h; seminars: 20 h; 90 h of self-learning

Topic: 1: Hybrid threats in social networks: the realities of the XXI century.

Spreading misinformation through social networks. The activity of fake profiles, their role in propaganda and disinformation. Inciting hatred, and spreading panic through social networks. Official pages of government representatives as a way to combat disinformation. The role of social networks in rallying the public.

Topic 2: Classification of social networks.

Types of social networks: closed; open; mixed Opportunities and disadvantages of open social networks. Functionality of closed and mixed social networks. Global and regional social networks. Personal, professional, and thematic social networks. Division of social networks by types of activity.

Topic 3: Mechanisms of inciting conflicts in social networks.

Functional capabilities of trolls, bots, and electronic armies. Possibilities of infiltration of the circle of friends. Phishing, blackmail, and discrediting. Trade in information. The culture of cancellation. Cyberbullying. OSINT.

Topic 4: Types of information influences.

Manipulation of social consciousness. The effect of monotony, or “social fatigue”. Ambivalence as the disorganization of thinking and the production of social anxiety. Desensitization effect.

Topic 5: Infodemia and Information Chaos.

Infodemic is an epidemic in social networks. Spreading fake information and fake news. Popularization of conspiracy theories in social networks. Typical information disorder (information disorder). Manipulation of subjective biases. Information chaos.

Topic 6: Public practice of counteracting misinformation and propaganda.

Development of alertness. Fact-checking. Joint platforms for checking information, and detecting fakes and manipulations. Media regulators and public media in the fight against disinformation.

Topic 7: Media literacy.

The importance of developing digital competencies. Media culture in the information age. Psychological foundations of media literacy. World experience of media education. Electronic literacy. Transmediation. Social engineering in social networks.

Topic 8: Development of Soft skills to counter misinformation and propaganda.

Mastering the basics of constructive communication. Ability to conduct difficult negotiations, to persuade. Active listening. Storytelling (the ability to tell). Empathy, emotional intelligence. Positive worldview and ability to adapt to changes. Critical innovative thinking.

Topic 9: European information policy.

The concept and structure of the European information space. Functions and principles of formation and functioning of the European information space. Trans-European component of the European information space, its main components. Strategies and programs for the formation of the European information society. The main directions of modern information and communication policy of the EU.

Topic 10: Information policy of Ukraine.

Legal support of the state information policy in Ukraine. Institutional support of information policy in Ukraine. Ukraine’s integration into the European information space. Foreign political factors influencing the information policy of Ukraine. Information presence of Ukraine in the world. The policy of correction of historical memory as a counteraction to hybression.

Topic 11: Regulatory regulation of information security.

Freedom of expression on the Internet – opportunities and challenges. Information security policy versus information security policy and the sphere of its circulation. Trends in regulatory and legal provision of information security in the EU. Problems of regulatory and legal provision of information security in Ukraine. Information security in the field of human and citizen rights and freedoms. Information and psychological security. Information and technical security.

Topic 12: Anti-disinformation policy: EU practice, implementation in Ukraine.

Countering disinformation: European approaches. Council of Europe standards for countering information chaos (PACE Resolution “Democracy is broken? How to respond?” No. 2326, Recommendation CM/Rec(2018)2, Recommendation CM/Rec(2020)1). European centers for countering disinformation. Center for countering disinformation at the National Security and Defence Council of Ukraine.

Topic 13: EU Disinformation Organization.

European Center of Excellence for Countering Hybrid Threats (Hybrid CoE). European Program for the Protection of Critically Important Information. Hybrid Threats Data Collection Group at the EU Intelligence and Situation Centre. East StratCom Task Force (2015).

Topic 14: Information warfare and operations of influence.

Information war. Social networks as a battlefield. Special information operations (SIO). Acts of external information aggression (FIA). Information terrorism (IT). Information security gap.

Topic 15: Cyberwarfare – threat awareness and counteraction.

Cyberspace as the fifth sphere of warfare. Cyber threats. Cyber attacks and hacker attacks. Consideration of information technologies (backdoor, DoS attack, direct access attacks). Vulnerable areas of activity.

Topic 16: Attacking information weapon.

Computer viruses. Logic bombs. Means of suppression of information exchange in telecommunication networks, falsification of information in channels of state and military administration. Means of neutralization of test programs. Software errors.

Topic 17: New technologies in mitigating and countering hybrid threats.

Artificial Intelligence. Research and study of new breakthrough technologies. Big Data Analysis.

Topic 18: Information security and cybersecurity.

Principles of information security (confidentiality, availability and integrity). Types of information security (individuals, society, state, information and technical infrastructure). Information influence as a type of information support of the state administration system. Cyber security as a part of information security. Theory and practice of building secure computer systems (system security and design, user security).

Topic 19: Regulatory and Legal Enforcement of Cyber Security in Countries of the European Union: The Experience for Ukraine. 

Review of the research on cybersecurity as a component of information security. A legal platform for information security and the protection of cyberspace in developing the economic security of the European Union. Budapest Convention on Cybercrime (Convention On Cybercrime European, 2001). EU Directive on the Security of Network and Information Systems (NIS Directive). EU Cybersecurity Strategy for the Digital Decade (2021). Cybernetic forces are the experience of the world’s leading countries.

Topic 20: The vulnerability of cyberspace: Ukraine.

Cyberdialogue Ukraine and the EU. Cyber security system of Ukraine. The role of public and volunteer organizations in the cyber security system of Ukraine. Cyber security strategy of Ukraine. Legislative consolidation of the main principles of ensuring cyber security of Ukraine

5 ECTS: lectures: 40 h; seminars: 20 h; 90 h of self-learning

Topic: 1: Theoretical foundations of civil society.

Approaches to understanding civil society. Models of functioning of civil society. The structure of civil society. Functions of civil society. Value characteristics of civil society.

Topic 2: Civil society as an integral attribute of modern democracy.

Concepts and principles of functioning of civil society. Self-organization as a basic feature of civil society. The structure and functions of civil society. Institutes of civil society. The relationship between civil society and the state. The problem of civil society maturity. The question of the ratio of individual and collective rights and freedoms in the process of civil society functioning.

Topic 3: Collective and individual participation in the partnership model of interaction between civil society and state institutions.

Legal aspects of interaction between civil society and the state. consultations with the public. Activities of public councils under executive authorities. Public examination of the activities of executive authorities. The problem of effectiveness of public control mechanisms.

Topic 4: Legislative principles for ensuring the functioning and development of civil society.

General characteristics and principles of legislation in the field of civil society. Norms that determine basic approaches to understanding civil society and its interaction with the state. Norms regulating the activities of civil society institutions. Norms defining the legal basis of collective and individual participation in the process of interaction between civil society and the state. Norms providing for state financial support of civil society initiatives.

Topic 5: Political parties as an instrument of civil society participation in government.

The place and role of political parties in the institutional structure of civil society. Functions of political parties. Political parties as a subject of the electoral process. Guarantees of activity of political parties. Peculiarities of the activity of opposition parties.

Topic 6: Public sentiment, government and civil society.

The concept of global responsibility: state – civil society. Constitutional principles of interaction between civil society and the state. Comparative analysis of the interaction between the state and civil society in the EU states and in Ukraine. Characteristics of models of interaction between the state and civil society.

Topic 7: Modern practices of public activity and self-organization.

Public organizations and movements in the structure of civil society. Concept of public organizations and movements. Public organizations and movements in EU countries. Public organizations and movements in Ukraine.

Topic 8: Public associations are the basic institution of civil society functioning.

Functions of public associations in the structure of civil society. Concept and principles of formation of public associations. Principles of interaction of public associations with state authorities, authorities, and local self-government bodies. Peculiarities of formation and functioning of public associations. Legal status of members of public associations.

Topic 9: Anti-corruption activities of civil society organizations.

Civil society and anti-corruption. Tools and activities. Internal and external success factors. The impact of anti-corruption activism in Ukraine.

Topic 10: Features of the functioning of civil society in the economic sphere.

The place of economic relations in the structure of civil society. The middle class as a result of the development of freedom of members of civil society in the economic sphere. Direct financial support of civil society institutions. Indirect financial support through the establishment of tax incentives for civil society institutions and initiatives. Social services as an economic form of interaction of executive power bodies, local self-government with institutions of civil society.

Topic 11: Mass media as a control and information resource of civil society.

Mass media as a means of formation and channel of expression of public opinion. Mass media as a “control resource” of civil society. Legal principles of mass media functioning in Ukraine. The concept of “citizen mass media” and features of its implementation in Ukraine. Peculiarities of the application of the institution of refutation in the process of mass media activity.

Topic 12: Volunteer movement in Ukraine.

Principles of the volunteer movement. Forms of the volunteer movement. The Russian-Ukrainian conflict as a factor in the activation of the volunteer movement in Ukraine. The role of the volunteer movement in deterring Russian aggression before 24/02/2022.

Topic 13: The main trends of youth activity and self-organization.

Youth public organizations as a tool of socialization and formation of an active public position. The level of youth involvement in the activities of youth associations. The level of civic and socio-political activity of young people. Youth activity and social capital. Self-organization of youth and self-organization of society.

Topic 14: Effective responses to threats to national security: opportunities for civil society.

The security aspect of civil society functioning. The role of civil society in the process of settlement of the Russian-Ukrainian conflict. Public initiatives for conflict resolution. Information and advocacy activities.

Topic 15: The Orange Revolution and the Revolution of Dignity as manifestations of the maturity of civil society in Ukraine.

Ways of formation of civil society in the process of modernization of modern Ukraine. Bodies of self-organization of the population as a factor in the development of civil society in Ukraine. The role of mass media in building civil society. Electronic democracy as a factor in the development of civil society.

Topic 16: Exercise of the right to civil protest and peaceful assembly.

Concept of public protest and its forms. Constitutional principles of the exercise of the right to peaceful assembly. Rule on the legislative subject of legal regulation of freedom of peaceful assembly. Grounds for restricting the right to peaceful assembly. Obligations of the state regarding the realization of the right to peaceful assembly.

Topic 17: Identity: the cause or precondition of conflict.

Types and forms of identities. Conflict and integration potentials of the problem of identity. The problem of “identity conflicts”. The problem of identity formation and the national interest of the country. Valuable ideas about the identity of the country as a safeguard against the occurrence of conflicts. The role of identity politics in the cognitive dimension of hybrid conflicts.

Topic 18: International standards for implementing the right to peaceful assembly and the problems of their provision in Ukraine.

General characteristics of the practice of the European Court of Human Rights in the sphere of peaceful assembly (Article 11 of the Convention). Issues regarding the quality and necessary orientation of the normative act in the field of peaceful assemblies. The issue of restriction of the right to freedom of peaceful assembly: a three-pronged test. Prior notice rule. Peculiarities of holding simultaneous meetings and counter-meetings.

Topic 19: EU engagement with civil society.

The importance of civil society in the EU. The influence of civil society on the processes of European integration. Participation of civil society in the public life of the EU countries. The influence of civil society organizations on EU foreign policy.

Topic 20: Civil society in the Eastern Partnership countries.

Forum of civil society. Thematic priorities of activity. Ukrainian national platform. Initiatives. Statements of the forum on conflict situations in the countries of the Eastern Partnership.